Thursday 20 September 2018

Miscellaneous: Titles of the 1er Empire

Started today, 20th Sept. 2018, this is very much just the beginning of a work in progress.

In a recent review of David Chandler's Dictionary of the Napoleonic Wars I was grumbling about the confusion generated by Napoleon's habit of bestowing numerous titles on friends, family and followers.

Well, in this post I aim to create some sort of cross-referenced resource whereby one can enter or search for a name or title, and find out what other names and titles go with it. I might need some programming help to really make this happen. Initially it'll probably just be a set of lists... hmm?

Official undress uniform of a Marshal of the 1er Empire. [1]


Augereau, Charles Pierre François, 1804 - Other titles: Duke of Castiglione (1757–1816), 
Bernadotte, Jean Baptiste Jules, 1804 - Other titles: Prince of Pontecorvo, King of Sweden & Norway.
Berthier, Louis-Alexandre, 1804 - Other titles: Prince of Neufchâtel and of Wagram, Duke of Valangin (1753–1815).
Bessières, Jean-Baptiste, 1804 - Other titles: Duke of Istria (1768–1813).
Brune, Guillaume, 1804 - Other titles: Count Brune (1763–1815).
Davout, Louis-Nicolas, 1804 - Other titles: Duke of Auerstädt, Prince of Eckmühl (1770–1823).
de Grouchy, Emmanuel, 1815 - Other titles: Marquis of Grouchy (1766–1847).
Jourdan, Jean-Baptiste, 1804 - Other titles: Count Jourdan (1762–1833).
de Kellermann, François Christophe, 1804 (Honorary) - Other titles: Duke of Valmy (1737–1820).
Lannes, Jean, 1804 - Other titles: Duke of Montebello (1769–1809).
Lefebvre, François Joseph, 1804 (Honorary) - Other titles: Duke of Danzig (1755–1820).
MacDonald, Jacques, 1809 - Other titles: Duke of Taranto (1765–1840)
Marmont, Auguste, 1809 - Other titles: Duke of Ragusa (1774–1852).
Masséna, André, 1804 - Other titles: Duke of Rivoli, Prince of Essling (1758–1817).
de Moncey, Bon-Adrien Jeannot, 1804 - Other titles: Duke of Conégliano (1754–1842).
Mortier, Édouard, 1804 - Other titles: Duke of Treviso (1768–1835).
Murat, Joachim, 1804 - Other titles: Prince of the Empire, Grand Duke of Clèves and Berg, King of Naples (1767–1815).
Ney, Michel, 1804 - Other titles: Duke of Elchingen, Prince of Moscow (1769–1815).
Oudinot, Nicolas, 1809 - Other titles: Duke of Reggio (1767–1847).
de Pérignon, Catherine-Dominique, 1804 (Honorary) - Other titles: Marquis of Grenade (1754–1818).
Poniatowski, Prince Józef Antoni, 1813 - Other titles: hereditary polish prince (1763–1813).
Saint-Cyr, Laurent de Gouvion, 1812 - Marquis of Gouvion Saint-Cyr (1764–1830).
Sérurier, Jean-Mathieu-Philibert, 1804 (Honorary) - Other titles: Count Sérurier (1742–1819).
Soult, Jean-de-Dieu, 1804 - Other titles: Duke of Dalmatia (1769–1851), Marshal General of France, 1847.
Suchet, Louis-Gabriel, 1811 - Other titles: Duke of Albufera (1770–1826).
Victor, Claude, 1807 - Other titles: Duke of Belluno (1764–1841).

Other individuals by surname

Bonaparte, Jerome - Prince of Montfort; King of Westphalia.
Bonaparte, Joseph - King of Spain (1808-1813); King of Naples & Sicily (1806-1808).
Bonaparte, Louis - King of Holland (1806-1810).
de Caulaincourt, Armand-Augustin-Louis - Duc d' Vicenza.
Clarke, Jenri Jacques Guillaume - Duc de Feltre; became a Marshal under the Bourbons.
Dumas, Guillaume-Mathieu - Intendant General (1812); Comte.
Junot, Jean-Andoche - Duc d' Abrantes.
Maret, Hugues-Bernard - Duc de Bassano; Comte.

Dukes, Princes, and other titles, etc.

Abrantes, Duc d' - Junot, Jean-Andoche
Bassano, Duc de - (Comte) Maret, Hugues-Bernard
Belluno, Duc de - Victor, Claude
Eckmühl, Prince d' - Davout, Louis-Nicolas
Feltre, Duc de - Clarke, Jenri Jacques Guillaume; made Marshal by Bourbons.
Fezensac, Baron- de Montesquiou-Fezensac, Raymond Aimery.
Intendant General (in 1812*) - Dumas
Moskva, Prince de - Ney
Naples, King Of - Murat
Neuchatel, Prince de - Berthier
Vicenza, Duc d' - de Caulaincourt, Armand-Augustin-Louis
Westphalia, King of - Jerome Bonaparte

* Acc. to Fezensac (dunno how long he held this post)

 This sign denotes titles not bestowed by Napoleon, such as pre-existing hereditary dukes, barons, etc. Some of these are guesses on my part! There are also instances of titles such as Marshal being bestowed on individuals listed here after Napoleon's defeat and final abdication in 1815.


Primary source for all the above, Wikipedia.

[1] Official uniform of a Marshal of the Empire. Designed by painter Jean-Baptiste Isabey and designer Charles Percier.

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